1- What do we know about ‘coronaviruses’, what is Covid-19, which is recorded as the last example of the species ‘infecting humans’, where does its name come from?
‘Korona’ is a family of viruses. Coronaviruses derive their name from protein capsules that surround themselves like a “crown.” “Corona” means “crown” in Latin. According to the World Health Organization’s (WHO-WHO) determination, the name of the last coronavirus is SARS-Cov-2 / ie Severe Acute Respiratory Failure Coronavirus 2 and the disease is Covid-19 (coronavirus disease 19).
World Health Organization President Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus The name ‘Covid-19’; The co of “corona”, the virus of “virus”, is derived from the English of the word “disease”, and from 2019, the year when the notification was made.
Covid-19 was registered as a type 7 coronavirus, which was found to infect humans within the coronavirus family.
Scientists generally describe viruses as follows: A micro-organism. It doesn’t even have a single cell. They do not appear in a light microscope, such as bacteria, fungi, and parasites. In their structure, there is a DNA or RNA molecule as a genetic material and a sheath surrounding it. They need a lively environment to reproduce. They have to enter the cell to survive. It enters the cell by its receptor, that is, by clinging to the bastards. Viruses infect after entering the cell. It multiplies and the cell explodes. It moves to other cells. The disease begins and spreads like this.
Head of Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Istanbul University Istanbul Medical Faculty. Dr. Haluk Eraksoy He says that the virus that spreads to many countries in the world and causes deaths is from the coronavirus family and it was understood on January 7, 2020 as a result of examining the samples taken from the patients.
Stating that coronaviruses are a large family of viruses that can cause disease in humans. Dr. Haluk Eraksoy states that coronaviruses circulating among some animal species such as bats have gained the ability to infect humans over time.
Coronaviruses are a family of viruses known since ancient times, with about 500 members, causing diseases in animals, leading to economic losses. After the 1950s, 4 coronaviruses were found to cause a disease table, which was briefly defined as “colds” in humans.
It was the first time that these viruses caused serious infections in humans when the SARS problem occurred in 2002; After a while, another coronavirus infection called MERS was identified briefly. Both diseases were withdrawn from the scene without global spread, although their fatality characteristics were high. It was understood that the source of SARS were musk cats and the source of MERS were camels.
Geneticist Assoc. Dr. Çağhan Kızılsays for the new type of coronavirus / Covid-19:
“Covid 19-SARS-CoV2 is the seventh such virus that we know infects humans. Four types of coronaviruses (229E, NL63, OC43, and HKU1) are among the types of viruses that we are constantly infected with. These coronaviruses with flu-like symptoms go unnoticed because they do not cause mild symptoms and often no symptoms at all. Three other types of coronavirus (MERS-CoV, SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, which we fight today) are viruses that infect animals and then pass on to human beings. These viruses are thought to be more powerful than the other four types because they are subject to change. Emerging in 2002, SARS was taken under control in 2004 and no other cases were seen since. Out of SARS-CoV, which was diagnosed in 8 thousand 98 people in 26 countries, 774 people died (9.6 percent). This number is 858 (34.4 percent) in 2,494 MERS-CoV cases in 27 countries in 2012. So far, this rate is 3.4 percent for SARS-CoV-2.“
One of the most prominent features of the new type of coronavirus is its rapid spread.
2- What is the difference that makes Covid-19 dangerous from other viruses?
One of the most prominent features of the new type of coronavirus is its rapid spread. Geneticist Prof. Dr. Selim BadurThe new type of choranavirus is a new antigenic (A protein-like substance such as virus, bacteria, parasite, which causes the formation of antibodies when it enters the body.There is no immunity (immunity) developed amongst humans due to being a type). In other words, there is no pre-existing immunity in any human being against this new factor that first encountered; For this reason, the virus spreads very rapidly and it can cause breathing difficulties and serious damage to the lung especially in elderly individuals and those with chronic diseases.
Professor of Life Sciences at Warwick University in Britain. Dr. Andrew EastonAccording to, sometimes it is impossible to predict what a virus can do next when a virus leaps between its species, if the immune system is too weak or another important factor that allows the virus to somehow overcome this barrier. The virus creates a unique habitat in the new species it enters, and its effects can be severe in the early stages of this process.
The process of leaping into another living species of the virus usually begins with its mutation. Because in order to get the opportunity to grow in the new body it enters, it has to change in some way.
3- When, where, how did the outbreak started, what are the first findings?
According to the common information, the new type of coronavirus came to the agenda on December 31, 2019, with the detection of signs of pneumonia in Wuhan, China, 4 people who have a relationship with a market where live animals and their products are sold. It was understood on January 7, 2020 that the virus, which spread to many countries around the world and caused deaths, was in the coronavirus family, after examining the samples taken from the patients.
Despite this widespread information, there are question marks, claims, and explanations that the virus may also originate from the USA. You can read Akdoğan Özkan’s analysis published in T24 regarding this discussion here.
Of course, if we neglect the main factor that we can summarize as ‘humanity disrupts ecological balance and increasingly violates wildlife’; It is not yet clear exactly which animal species the virus is transmitted to. Reputable science journal The LancetAccording to an article published in, more than 30 percent of the early outbreaks were not associated with the animal markets in question; animal markets are shown as the “most likely candidate” since only the majority of available data points to this. Therefore, it is wrong to hold bats or bat consumption responsible for this outbreak until more data is available.
4- Are the views that China initially covered the epidemic and triggered the global epidemic by delaying the measures?
Beginning in late 2019, the world is a doctor in Wuhan, China. Li venliangHe heard his thoughts about the virus he couldn’t name after sharing it in a group of friends of doctors through China’s messaging app Wechat. Venliang said the virus was similar to the SARS virus that previously caused the outbreak. However, Venliang was warned by the Chinese police to “not make false comments” and was charged with spreading rumors.
Speaking to the BBC Chinese Service, Dr. Li’s father Li ShuyingHe said, “I didn’t believe my son was gossiping. Isn’t it true what he said? Is this disease not transmitted from person to person?”
Dr. Venliang later died due to coronavirus. The Chinese government has also acknowledged that mistakes have been made in the policy against the virus after this delay.
BBC Beijing Correspondent Stephen McDonel He commented on the developments in China:
“Dr. Li Venliang’s death was a sad event for many in this country. For the Chinese government, it was a huge political disaster. This death revealed the worst aspects of the management and control system led by Chinese President Chi Jinping. The Communist Party must be blind to not see it. If your reaction to an outbreak is to harass the doctor who first notices this, there is a big problem in your system. The mayor of the city said that the Chinese people had to get approval from the center to share the information they deserve to access. Now, the people who are tasked with changing the agenda are 1.4 billion Chinese. He will say that Li’s death does not fully reflect the Communist Party’s policies in emergencies. However, in such periods, openness can save lives, while such restrictions can lead to death.“
US President Donald Trump He used the expression ‘Chinese virus’ by accusing Beijing explicitly. In the news in the US press, it was written that Vuhan’s mayor, where the virus first appeared, declared on the Chinese State Television that the city administration admitted that it did not make “timely and satisfying” statements in the first days of the outbreak.
Vuhan Party Secretary Ma Guaciang “I am guilty and embarrassed. If we had taken earlier measures, it would have been better now”. On the other hand, Taiwan leader Tsai Ing-wenCalled on the Chinese administration to fulfill its responsibility to be transparent about the outbreak’s situation and to share precise information about the outbreak with Taiwan.
Weibo users in China, the most widely used social media channel due to the Twitter and Facebook bans, also reacted to the government keeping the information about the virus confidential.
5- How did the coronavirus, which the World Health Organization declared as “Pandemic-Global Epidemic” started in Asia, especially in China, but the center of the epidemic spread to Europe?
Another fact revealed by the new type of coronavirus is that borders have lost meaning in the face of global crises or outbreaks. As a matter of fact, this epidemic has emerged in 123 countries and regions worldwide, albeit at different levels.
The entire European continent has been affected by this virus. Indeed, WHO Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus also announced that as of mid-March, when the reported number of Covid-19 cases and deaths per day began to exceed China, Europe became the epicenter of a new type of coronavirus epidemic.
In Covid-19’s transmission chain, European countries, especially Italy and Spain’s delays in taking early and radical measures, limited measures, deficiencies in health infrastructure (lack of diagnostic centers, lack of general screening etc.), alleviating the epidemic caused by social habitual differences. the reasons made the continent the center of the epidemic. In the history of the first cases in France, it was determined that there were people going to the city of Vuhan, where a new type of coranavirus appeared. Afterwards, the spread of coronavirus epidemic in Italy and the number of deaths passed China. In Italy, it was expressed by the scientific circles that the high number of cases was effective, as well as the delay in taking widespread and widespread measures.
6- Is it true that countries such as China and South Korea, the source country in Asia, are significantly suppressing the epidemic, how did they manage it?
According to the World Health Organization, despite the increase in the number of cases in many countries, there has been a decline in the number of cases in China, where the virus originated.
China is a country with epidemic experience due to the SARS virus in 2002. After increasing the number of cases, he implemented a strategy of protection and breaking the chain of outbreaks. Faculty Member of Ankara Social Sciences University (ASBÜ) Faculty of Foreign Languages Department of Chinese Language and Literature Cansu KörkemIn the light of the information provided by, the following can be said about this issue.
First, a specialist team went to Wuhan city where the virus came out and confirmed the existence of the virus. Chinese officials, this time, the custody of the virus in the public thought that their team will cause serious panic. These critical decisions that the administrators took under panic actually caused serious damage. The virus coincided with New Year’s Day (one of China’s most important holidays), celebrated from January 21 to February 3. It can be stated that the occurrence of coronavirus epidemic at such a critical time plays an important role in not making easy decision for solution.
On the other hand, problems in places such as Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and the trade war with the US extended China’s fast and tough decision-making time. However, when the number of deaths increased, the province of Hubei, where Wuhan was affiliated, was quarantined. Curfew was imposed.
The People’s Bank of China (Central Bank) has implemented financial measures to combat the virus. The banks in Hubey (Wuhan’s subordinate) state were transferred to the banks to supply the necessary materials for the virus, with low interest loans. Although the trainings at the universities were postponed for a short period of time, online courses were launched over the internet. 600 legal / administrative regulations were issued within 10 days to support the functioning of small businesses. Regions where cases and deaths were observed were shared with the public at the climbing stage.
Meanwhile, many countries have stopped their flights to China, found that including Turkey. Although China finds these measures ‘extreme’, the reduction of flights has also reduced the spread of the virus. Iran, one of the countries with the fastest spread, continued its flights to China until March.
South Korea followed a different method for struggle. South Korea has an uncomplicated national health system known to its citizens. So South Korean citizens know exactly what to do. BBC Seoul Correspondent Laura BickerAccording to the report, South Korea developed the choranavirus test within 17 days with the course taken from MERS (Middle East Respiratory Syndrome). The license to produce test kits was given to 4 companies. It created the capacity to conduct 140 thousand tests per week. 15 thousand-20 thousand people were tested free of charge per day. The Covid-19 test has been extended to be applied even to those who drive. The samples were sent to one of the 96 laboratories serving 24 hours a day and spread all over the country. The results were obtained in 5-6 hours and the person was informed. Korea University Infectious Disease Specialist Kim Woo-Joo said that the diagnostic capacity plays a key role in combating the epidemic. Working as an epidemiologist at the University of Korea Chun Byung-ChulAccording to the report, people with high risk were given priority for treatment in hospitals. Mild symptoms were prevented from going to public areas and directed to contracted health centers. Teams created in the neighborhoods to monitor suspicious people checked twice a day and were allowed to stay in their homes. Fines were imposed on those who did not comply with the quarantine. South Korea has also developed an application that contains information from people carrying Covid-19-like viruses. The said application was shared on social media and the public was warned. Thanks to this information, those who contacted / survived the test were informed. South Korea has come a long way in preventing the epidemic with mass test / quick results and other controls.
Although the epidemic was the central Europe after China, Germany achieved great success against the epidemic in the third week of March, with extensive test / kit use, organized health system and effective isolation.
7- How did Italy become the country with the most frequent deaths?
The case and mortality rate in Italy surpassed China, where the coronavirus was first seen. Different explanations were made about the reasons for this. Among the reasons were the delay in the measure, non-compliance with social isolation warnings, people migrating to the south after the cases were seen mostly in the north, diagnostic tests were not common, and the population was old. The average life expectancy in the country is 85.3 years for women and 81 years for men. The average age of the population is 45.7. In Italy, people over 65 make up 23.1 percent of the total population. Quarantine was implemented in the country after the epidemic escalated and the deaths increased. A mayor (Gianfilippo Bancheri) rebelled against the insensitivity about social isolation and said, “Lots of people are having a barbecue at a picnic. Are you kidding!” said.
In Italy, the region most affected by the virus, in Lombardy, when coronavirus was first seen, people who were at risk were also tested, although they did not show symptoms, but then only those who showed symptoms were tested. Director of the Infectious Diseases Department of Luigi Sacco Hospital in Milan Massimo galliHe said that the number of cases was unknown due to testing only for people with symptoms, and the spread was probably much higher than what was determined.
The Italian College of Anesthesiology, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care stated that “disaster medicine” measures will be required if the capacity of the hospitals is not sufficient due to the coronavirus crisis.
Among these measures, choosing among patients to be taken to intensive care unit, and, if necessary, “selecting those with a higher chance of survival”. It is stated that an age limit can be set for admission to intensive care, if necessary.
8- measures which were shared with the public since December in Turkey?
An Scientific Committee was established on January 6 with the participation of an operation center within the Ministry of Health, and on January 10 with the participation of YÖK and academicians from 12 universities.
From Jan. 20, China’s Wuhan city as seen from the illness, Honkonga, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, Taiwan, America, travelers from Russia and Vietnam began to be screened on entry to Turkey.
On January 27, Foreign Affairs started to make travel warnings.
On February 1, a Turkish citizen in China’s Wuhan city was brought to a military plane to Turkey. It was announced that no virus was detected in the quarantined passengers.
On February 3, all flights to China were stopped
On February 23, air, land and railway crossings were closed from Iran, where the disease appeared and began to spread.
Field hospitals were established at 8 border gates with Iran, Iraq and Georgia on 27 February.
passenger traffic between Italy-Turkey was stopped on 29 February.
On March 2, those who returned, were advised not to leave the house for 14 days and to accept visitors. Religious Affairs of Umrah outgoing President Ali Lance Corporal 21 thousand people, all completely on March 14 announced it would be returned to Turkey. However, it was the subject of debate as one of the biggest weaknesses in the process, both to allow Umrah traffic despite the epidemic and to not quarantine those who return.
On March 6, in the last 14 days it has been banned from entering Turkey by foreign nationals residing in Italy. The 14-day home quarantine requirement for citizens of Turkey was introduced.
Midnight on March 10, Minister of Health Fahrettin Koca He has announced that the first cases seen in Turkey. Minister Koca did not provide any information except that the person is a man and has a “European theme”.
On March 12, it was announced that the schools will be vacationed and sports competitions will be played without spectators. High school and university entrance exams to be held in June were postponed.
On March 13, air transport with 9 European countries, including Germany, France and Spain, was stopped. Hospitals were restricted from visitors. Pregnant women working in the public sector, those on milk leave, disabled people and personnel over the age of 60 were given 12 days of administrative leave. Private kindergartens, day nurseries, special children’s clubs were holidayed. The permits of the soldiers in the barracks were stopped. Military service charges and military exercises were postponed. Transfers were suspended with the opinions of the penal institutions. Arrangements for 10 minutes by phone were made twice a week for detainees and convicts.
On March 13, the Board of Judges and Prosecutors sent a letter to the courthouses to postpone non-emergency hearings and other judicial proceedings. Culture and arts activities were delayed until the end of April. Elderly and chronic illnesses whose medicines are linked to the report were enabled to continue taking their medication without going to the hospital at the end of the report period. With the outbreak, control and activation for those who sold the products at exorbitant prices was activated.
On March 14, a hopeful citizen was registered as a new case.
On March 15, those who returned, were quarantined in student dormitories. Some wanted to escape from some dormitories. Activities such as bars, casinos, nightclubs, museums and libraries have been stopped.
On March 16, 14 days quarantine was launched for those coming from countries where flights were stopped.
Religious Affairs announced that Friday prayers and time prayers will not be performed with the congregation, only one or two people can pray in mosques. Places such as coffee shops, cafes, cinemas, theaters, concert halls, wedding halls, Turkish baths, gymnasiums, internet cafes, indoor children’s playgrounds, condolence houses, where people are gathered, have been temporarily closed.
Health Minister Koca announced that the number of Covid-19 test laboratories was gradually increased to 18. The Scientific Board announced that this number was later increased to 36.
On 17 March, 6 more countries were banned, including Britain and Saudi Arabia.
On March 18, President Erdoğan announced the economic measure package. He announced that free masks and cologne will be distributed to people aged 65 and over, and the lowest pension has been increased to 1,500 lira.
Within the scope of the package, which does not include a provision in terms of employment incentives, tax regulations and natural gas, electricity, water bills against the risk of mass unemployment, “reducing VAT from 18 percent to 1 percent in air transportation, 500 thousand lira, Promoting home sales under “created a controversy.
On March 21, a restriction was imposed on people aged 65 and over on the street. Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry “Prohibited the burning of barbecues in national parks, forests and parks and gardens affiliated to the ministry. The Ministry of Interior temporarily banned soldiers farewell. The General Manager, who traveled to 319 cities in 127 countries before the new type of coronavirus epidemic. Bilal Ekşi“Airline company that flies to the most countries in the world”, Turkish Airlines; He stopped all international flights until April 17, except Hong Kong, Moscow, Addis Ababa, New York, Washington.
The Turkish Medical Association frequently pointed out the insufficient number of materials and diagnostic kits during this process and explained that the outbreak related situation should be shared transparently.
which was about 9- measures against the epidemic What’s worrying developments in Turkey?
Head of religious affairs Ali Erbaş 2 is 21 thousand people in Umrah announced in March and will gradually return to Turkey. However, the state did not apply quarantine to the first returners. When the individuals were advised not to leave their homes for 14 days and not to accept visitors, they were criticized about the most important weakness in the epidemic. After the 14th of March, hopeful returners were quarantined.
The number of coronavirus diagnostic laboratories has been gradually increased. These diagnostic laboratories, announced as 36, are centrally linked to the Ministry of Health. However, the Turkish Medical Association explained that this number is insufficient, there is no widespread test, that there may be a margin of error in the tests, and therefore, tomography of the suspect should be taken.
On the 21st of March, the curfews of people aged 65 and over and those with chronic illnesses were restricted, but the absence of restrictions on other age groups was controversial. At the press conference on the evening of March 22, Health Minister Fahrettin Koca said, “Everyone can declare their state of emergency. It does not necessarily have to be declared by the state.”
In summary; low number of widespread test kits and insufficiency in respiratory equipment, employment, lack of effective measures to support low-income and businesses, not to apply compelling measures in social isolation, to delay late prayers with congregation, to delay late in sports competitions, especially in football. behaving was among the main criticism issues. Indeed, Galatasaray Coach Fatih Terim , 8 days after the criticism of not delaying the matches (March 22), he announced that he had caught the new type of corona virus, his daughter Merve responded from social media “God damn you“announced the words.
10- Are there specific risk groups in coronavirus?
Experts agree with the elderly that the presence of chronic (chronic) diseases (such as asthma, diabetes, heart or lung diseases) causes the infection of the virus to be more severe.
However, this does not mean that the virus is not effective outside these groups.
Although the rates were low due to coronavirus, deaths under 50 and under 40 were also seen. The WHO Secretary General warned the youth with the words, “You are not invincible against the virus.”
The Turkish Medical Association wrote to the Ministry of Health, stating that healthcare workers who are in contact with coronavirus patients are also at risk. In the letter of TTB, “There is an intense complaint from physicians about the fact that personal protective materials are not enough. Healthcare workers are not at risk of COVID-19 disease. It is one of our top priorities “that it does not force us to provide services and the protective equipment deficiencies in the health institutions are eliminated as soon as possible.”
Statement confirming these ‘complaints’ Professor from Istanbul University Capa Medical Faculty. Erbug Keskincame from. Sharp shared the bank account number of the Istanbul Faculty of Medicine Foundation, saying ‘we have a lot of material’.
Although the rates are low due to coronavirus, deaths under 50 and under 40 have not been observed.
11- What are the main measures against coronavirus outbreak?
The main measures shared by the Turkish Medical Association and the Ministry of Health General Directorate of Public Health are as follows:
- Contact with sick people should be avoided. If possible, a minimum distance of 1 meter, preferably 2 meters, should be maintained.
- Hands should be washed frequently, especially after contact with sick people or their environment.
- The mouth, nose and eyes should not be touched without washing hands.
- Hands should be washed with soap and water for at least 20 seconds and then dried.
- It is not mandatory to use soap with antiseptic or antibacterial, normal soap is enough.
- In the absence of soap and water, alcohol-based hand antiseptic or cologne should be used.
- Hand antiseptics are as effective as hand washing unless there is any visible contamination. However, when there is a visible contamination in the hand, the hands must be washed with soap, not less than 20 seconds.
When should the mask be used?
- Healthy people do not need to wear a mask.
- The person suffering from any viral respiratory infection should cover his nose and mouth with a disposable tissue paper during coughing or sneezing, and in cases where there is no tissue paper, use the inside of the elbow. It is recommended that sick people should not enter crowded places if possible, and use a medical mask if they have to. When the mask is removed, it should be thrown away immediately and hands should be washed or cleaned with an antiseptic.
- People who are not sick do not normally need to wear masks. Only those who have been in contact with those who have had new coronavirus disease (healthcare professionals, those living in the same home with the patient) must wear a mask. In these cases, it is sufficient that the masks to be used are surgical / simple / medical masks.
- Special masks of type N95 or FFP2 should be used by healthcare professionals only under special conditions (when the patient needs to be connected to the breathing apparatus, etc.).
Should I wear gloves?
- No. Gloves are used only by healthcare professionals during patient care and examination. People other than healthcare professionals should not use gloves. The most important reason for this is that the disease spreads more when the gloves are not used properly.
- The proper use of gloves is provided by training for healthcare professionals. It is not appropriate for people other than health professionals to wear gloves.
12- What are the recommended measures in isolation / social distance conditions at home?
Head of Gazi University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology. Esin Senol He explained:
- Evler sık sık havalandırılmalı.
- Dışarıdan geldikten sonra eller mutlaka yıkanmalı.
- Dışarıdan geldikten sonra duş almak önemli.
- Dışarıdan geldikten sonra temas edilen bütün yüzeylerin (kapı kolları, elektrik düğmeleri, market alışverişinde kullanılan poşetler vb.) enfekte olduğu varsayılmalı eller yıkanmalı.
- Dışarıdan geldikten sonra kıyafetler çıkarılıp havalandırılmalı.
- Dezenfektan jellerin cildi kurutma özelliği nedeniyle genellikle sabun tercih edilmeli.
- Çöp ya da sipariş almaya gelen kişilerle 1 ya da 1,5 metrelik mesafe korunmalı, olası temas sonrası eller yıkanmalı.
- Sürekli evde kalanlar da normal zamanlardaki gibi çöpü attıktan sonra, gıdalara dokunmadan önce ellerini yıkamalı.
13- Salgında can kaybı/tedavi oranları nasıl gözleniyor?
Sağlık Bakanlığı bünyesinde ‘Bulaşıcı Hastalıkların İhbarı ve Bildirim Sistemi’ bulunuyor. İhbar ve bildirim konusundaki düzenlemeleri Sağlık Bakanlığı Temel Sağlık Hizmetleri Genel Müdürlüğü yapıyor.
Bildirimi zorunlu hastalıkların ihbarı ve bildiriminden sağlık hizmeti veren bütün kamu kurum ve kuruluşları ile gerçek kişiler ve özel kuruluşlar sorumlu. Kolera, epidemik tifüs, veba, sarı humma, kuduz gibi 51 adet bildirilmesi zorunlu hastalık var. Koronavirüs de “epidemik” kategorisine giriyor.
Türkiye’de şu ana kadar vaka ve ölüm rakamlarının açıklaması sadece Sağlık Bakanı Fahrettin Koca tarafından yapıldı. Bakan kocanın açıklamalarında tedavi sayıları yer almadı. Ölümler ya da vakalar konusunda il ya da bölge açıklanmadığı için Türkiye haritası da şu ana kadar oluşturulamadı.
Ancak salgına ilişkin küresel vakaları canlı olarak yayınlayan Johns Hopkins Üniversitesi verilerine göre, 22 Mart Türkiye saati ile 22.00 itibarıyla 168 ülke ve bölgede 367 bin 457 koronavirüs vakası teşhis edildi, bu hastaların 16 bin 113’ü hayatını kaybetti, 100 bin 879 hasta iyileşti.
Yaş gruplarına göre oranlar değişmekle birlikte, Johns Hopkins Üniversitesi tablosunda 22 Mart itibarıyla hastalanan kişilerde ölüm oranı yüzde 4,38. Ancak tespit yapılmadan hastalığı atlatanlar, hastane gitmeden iyileşenler, herhangi bir şekilde kayda girmeyip iyileşenlerin tabloda ortaya çıkan ölüm oranını düşürdüğünün altını çizelim.
14-Koronavirüs nasıl teşhis ediliyor, test sonuçları önce pozitif çıkan hastaların sonra negatif, sonra yine pozitif sonuç verme ihtimali var mı; bir kişi ilk vakayı atlattıktan sonra tekrar virüse yakalanabilir mi?
Covid-19 Sağlık Bakanlığı’na bağlı laboratuvarlarda test ediliyor. Test kitinde 3 aşamalı yöntem uygulanıyor. Önce hastanın boğaz ve burnundan sürüntü şeklinde örnek alıyor. Bu daha sonra nükleik asit, yani taşıma sıvısı içeren tüplere konuyor ki genetik bilgiyi taşıyan molekül yapı bozulmasın. Sonra bu tüp laboratuvara gönderilip analiz ediliyor. Ancak uzmanlar testlerin sağlıklı sonuç verebilmesi için virüsün belli bir miktarda olması gerektiğini söylüyor. Çünkü virüsün bulunamadığı ama semptomları devam eden vakalar var.
Sağlık Bakanı Fahrettin Koca, eski Kara Kuvvetleri Komutanı Aytaç Yalman‘ın koronavirüs nedeniyle ölmesinin ortaya çıkmasının ardından, can kayıpları arasında sayılmamasının gerekçesini “Test sonuçları önce negatif çıktı, daha sonra yapılan testte pozitif çıktı” sözleriyle açıkladı. Koca, test sonucu önce negatif, sonra pozitif, bir süre sonra negatif çıkan vakalar bile olduğunu” söyledi.
Sağlık Bakanlığı ayrıca online ‘koronavirüs’ semptomlarını değerlendiren ve ön değerlendirme sonucunda tavsiyede bulunan bir sistem kurdu. Ancak bu online sistemde sonuçlar “sadece öneri niteliği” taşıyor. Yani kesin sonuç veren bir sistem değil.
Japonya’da da iyileştiği açıklanan bir koronavirüs hastasının testlerinin yeniden pozitif çıktığı açıklanmıştı.
Diğer yandan BBC’ye konuşan Leeds Üniversitesi öğretim üyesi, viroloji uzmanı Prof. Mark Harris, yeniden enfeksiyonun çok olası olmadığını ancak bilimsel literatürde hayvanlarda; özellikle de yarasalarda tekrar eden koronavirüs vakaları olduğuna ilişkin veriler olduğunu söyledi.
Brighton ve Sussex Tıp Fakültesi’nden Prof. Jon Cohen de bu sorunun yanıtının henüz kesin olarak bilinmediğini, genel anlamda diğer viral enfeksiyonlara dayanarak hastalığa yakalanan bir kişinin bağışıklık geliştireceğinin ve yeniden aynı hastalığı geçirmeyeceğinin öngörüldüğünü aktardı. Ancak Cohen’e göre her zaman istisnalar olabilir.
15- Tedavi imkânı, aşı geliştirilmesi dışında kesin bir çözüm var mı?
Covid-19’a özgü bir tedavi henüz geliştirilmiş değil. Ana tedavi, semptomatik (belirtilere yönelik) tedavi olarak görülüyor.
Erken teşhisin önemli olduğunu vurgulayan uzmanlar Çin’de binlerce vakanın tedavi edildiğine işaret ediyor.
DSÖ verilerine göre yeni tip koronavirüse yakalananların yüzde 80’i, hatta yüzde 85’i özel bir tedaviye ihtiyaç duymaksızın hastalığı atlatabiliyor. Ancak hastalığın ağır seyrettiği durumlarda insanların solunum sorunları yaşadığı biliniyor.
Yeni tip koronavirüse karşı aşının ilk testleri yapılmaya başlanmasına karşın, DSÖ aşı konusunda 1 yıldan önce sonuç alınmasını mümkün görmüyor.
Bilim çevreleri aşının bulunmasının en kolay aşama olduğunu, asıl zorlu sürecin aşının denenmesi ve klinik süreçte test edilmesi olduğunu söylüyor.
Covid-19 aşısının 2021’in ortalarında bulunabileceği yaygın beklenti ve/veya umut. Ancak aşı geliştirmeye çalışan çeşitli ilaç firmaları bu sürenin daha kısa olabileceğini savunuyor.
Diğer yandan Dünya Sağlık Örgütü, aşı testlerinin dışında dünyanın dört bir yanındaki araştırmacılara, deneysel ilaçları sistematik olarak değerlendirmelerini önerdi. Bu önerinin alt yapısı vardı. Örneğin Avustralya’nın Queensland eyaletindeki Klinik Araştırma Merkezi uzmanları sıtma ve HIV tedavisinde kullanılan iki ilaçtaki etken maddelerin kombinasyonunun yeni tip koronavirüsü laboratuvar tüplerinde etkisiz hale getirdiğini duyurdu. İlaçlardan birinin ülkedeki ilk pozitif vakalardan birine verildiği ve bu kişide virüs izinin kalmayarak tamamen iyileştiği açıklandı.
16- Peki koronavirüs tanısı konanlara hangi müdahaleler yapılıyor?
Ağır koronavirüs vakalarında virüs akciğerlerde iltihaplanmaya yani zatürreye yol açabiliyor. Yani bu vakalara zatürre tedavisi uygulanıyor. Sadece bakteriyel enfeksiyonlardaki gibi antibiyotik kullanılmıyor. Yeni tip koronavirüs bir bakteri olmadığı için antibiyotikler etkili olamıyor. Solunum zorluğu çeken hastalara oksijen veriliyor. Hasta kötüleştiğinde suni solunum cihazına bağlanıyor. Tedavi sırasında hastalar virüsün yayılmasını önlemek amacıyla izole ediliyor.
Daha hafif koronavirüs vakalarında, örneğin tansiyon sorunu yaşayan hastalarda veya ishalin görüldüğü vakalarda hastaya damar yoluyla serum verilebiliyor. Ağrı kesici de semptomların giderilmesi için kullanılan ilaçlar arasında. Ancak, bir süre ateş seviyesinin izlenmesi için ağrı kesici verilmeyebiliyor.
Her virüs gibi koronavirüste de bağışıklık sistemini güçlü tutmak (yeterli ve kaliteli uyku, dengeli beslenme ve fiziksel aktivite) önemle vurgulanıyor. Bu çerçevede sigara ve alkol kullanımına karşı yaygın/yoğun uyarılar yapılıyor.
17- Koronavirüs konusunda doğru bilinen yanlışlar neler?
Sağlık Bakanlığı Halk Sağlığı Genel Müdürlüğü ve Koronavirüs Bilim Kurulu açıklamaları ışığında yanıt verelim:
- Sirke kullanmak Koronavirüs’ten korumaz. – Burnu tuzlu suyla düzenli olarak yıkamak yeni tip koronavirüs enfeksiyonundan korumaz. – Koronavirüsün Türk genine etki etmediği genetik bilimciler tarafından ‘safsata’ olarak yorumlanıyor.
- Evcil hayvanlardan Covid-19 bulaştığı bilgisi kesin bilgilerle doğrulanmış değil. Şu ana kadar yapılan çalışmalarda evcil hayvanlardan insanlara Covid-19 geçişi saptanmadı. Ancak uzmanlar evcil hayvanlarla temas sonrası ellerin su ve sabunla yıkanmasını öneriyor.
- Covid-19’un sadece yaşlıları etkilediği doğru değil. Hastalığı ağır geçirme olasılığı, yaş ilerledikçe artıyor. Özellikle 60 yaş üzerindeki bireylerde risk artıyor, 40 yaşın altında binde 2 olan ölüm oranı 80 yaşın üzerine çıkıldığında yüzde 15’e ulaşabiliyor. Ancak bu doğrular, diğer yaş gruplarının da koronavirüse karşı risk altında olduğu gerçeğini değiştirmiyor.
- Bu yönde iddialar öne sürülse de, Covid-19’un laboratuvar ortamında hazırlanmış bir virüs olduğu kesin bilgilerle saptanmış değil. Uzmanlar virüs için, ‘mikroorganizmaların geçirdikleri doğal basamaklar sonucu topluma yayılmıştır’ görüşünde.
- ‘Covid-19 için aşı geliştirildi ancak henüz piyasaya sürülmedi’ bilgisi de doğru değil. Henüz kullanabilecek bir aşı olmamakla birlikte devam eden 30 civarında bilimsel çalışma bulunuyor. Ancak bağışıklık sistemi ile koronavirüsler arasındaki karmaşık ilişki yeterli ölçüde aydınlatılamamış olduğundan ilk adımda geliştirilecek aşıların ne kadar ve ne süreyle etkili olacağı bilinmiyor.
18- Koronavirüs evcil hayvanlardan insanlara, insanlardan evcil hayvanlara bulaşabilir mi?
Türk Veteriner Hekimler Birliği Başkanı Ali Eroğlu, “Hastalığın yayılmasında köpeklerin bir rol oynadığına veya köpeklerin bu hastalığa yakalandıklarına dair hiçbir kanıt yoktur” diyor.
Eroğlu, “Covid-19 yayılmasının sebebi insandan insana bulaşmasıdır. Evcil kedi ve köpeklerden insanlara Covid-19 bulaşamayacağını, ancak virüsün insanlardan onlara geçebileceğini’ söylüyor. Uzmanlar yine de, hayvanlarla temastan sonra başta el yıkamak olmak üzere temizliğe dikkat etmenin bir zararı olmadığını söylüyor.
19- Virüsün havaların ısınmasıyla birlikte etkisini yitirebileceği görüşü hangi ölçüde doğru, salgının ne kadar sürmesi ve tekrarlanması ihtimali var?
Genetik bilimci Prof. Selim Badur‘a göre bu bilgi doğru değil. Çünkü, aynı anda farklı mevsimlerin sürdüğü iki yarımküre de bu salgından etkilendi.
Professor Badur; Singapur, Tayland, Brezilya ve Avustralya’daki vakaları örnek gösteriyor.
Uzmanlar salgının ne zaman biteceğine ya da tamamen bitip bitmeyeceğine ilişkin olarak henüz net olarak konuşamıyor. Ancak yeni tip koronavirüs salgınının kontrol altına alınabilmesinin aşıya, virüse karşı belirli sayıda insanın bağışıklık kazanmasına ve toplumun/davranışların daimi olarak değişmesine bağlı olduğunu söylüyor.
20- Koronavirüs salgını; neden ve nasıl 1929 ekonomik buhranı, 2. Dünya Savaşı gibi ekonominin tarihsel krizleriyle karşılaştırılacak ölçüde küresel ekonomiyi tahrip ediyor?
Yeni tip koronavirüs salgınının etkileri küresel çapta bir sağlık krizinin ötesine geçti. İlk adımda küresel hammadde/yarı mamul madde tedarikçisi Çin’deki üretim daralması dünya ekonomisini tökezletti. Tedarik zincirindeki kopuklukla başlayan ekonomik kriz, işyerlerinin kapanması, birçok sektörde üretimin durması ve toplu izolasyon ve belirsizlikle büyüdü.
Ekonomistler 29 Büyük Buhranı’na atıfla dünya ekonomisinin resesyona (durgunluk) girebileceğini, hatta girmekte olduğunu söylüyor. Uluslararası Çalışma Örgütü’nün tahminlerine göre, sadece bu salgın nedeniyle ilk dalgada 25 milyon insan işsiz kalabilir. Covid-19, insanlığı durgunluk ve dünya ekonomisinin küçülmesi ve kitlesel işsizlik tehdidiyle de karşı karşıya bırakmış bulunuyor.
Dünya borsaları büyük değer kaybetti. Wall Street ani düşüşleri önlemek için işlemleri kısa bir süre askıya aldı.
Elektronik, otomotiv, turizm, taşımacılık gibi alanlarda üretim ve hizmet sistemleri aksadı. Özellikle hava ve kara taşımacılığındaki yolcu hacmi hızla düştü.
ABD Merkez Bankası Koronavirüs yüzünden faiz indirdi. Avrupa Merkez Bankası 820 milyar dolarlık ek tahvil alım programı başlattı. Hane ve şirketlere ucuz kredi verebilmeleri için bankalara ucuz para sağlamanın adımıydı bu.
Koronavirüs salgını, petrol piyasalarındaki yüksek stok ve düşük talep sorununu daha da ağırlaştırdı.
Avrupa kıtasının güçlü ekonomisine sahip Almanya’nın başbakanı Merkel bu salgını 2. Dünya Savaşı’na benzetti.
Koronavirüs’ün ekonomide neden olacağı yıkıma karşılık ülkeler birer birer destek paketlerini açıkladı. Harcama bütçeleri oluşturdu.